A treaty is negotiated by a group of countries, either through an organization created for this purpose or by an existing body such as the United Nations Council on Disarmament (UN). The negotiation process can take several years depending on the subject of the treaty and the number of participating countries. At the end of the negotiations, the treaty will be signed by representatives of the governments concerned. Conditions may require that the treaty be ratified and signed before it becomes legally binding. A government ratifies a treaty by tabling a ratification instrument in a treaty-defined location; the ratification instrument is a document containing formal confirmation of the Government`s acceptance of the provisions of the treaty. The ratification process varies according to national laws and constitutions. In the United States, the president can only ratify a treaty after receiving the «consultation and approval» of two-thirds of the Senate. an agreement between two or more countries or persons that gives them power or influence over the responsibility to protect: an agreement reached in 2005 between all UN member states to protect people from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. International agreements are formal agreements or commitments between two or more countries. An agreement between two countries is described as «bilateral,» while an agreement between several countries is «multilateral.» Countries bound by an international convention are generally referred to as «Parties.» A bilateral agreement or bilateral activity is an agreement or bilateral activity involving two groups or countries, unless a treaty contains provisions for other agreements or measures, only the text of the treaty being legally binding. In general, an amendment to the Treaty only commits the States that have ratified it and the agreements reached at review conferences, summits or meetings of the States Parties are not legally binding. The Charter of the United Nations is an example of a treaty that contains provisions for other binding agreements.
By signing and ratifying the Charter, countries have agreed to be legally bound by resolutions adopted by UN bodies such as the General Assembly and the Security Council.